Metal nibs have their origins as far back as ancient Egypt and were made of metals like copper and bronze. However, the quality of writing that could be achieved with these pens was inferior to that of reed pens.
Metal nibs have their origins as far back as ancient Egypt and were made of metals like copper and bronze. However, the quality of writing that could be achieved with these pens was inferior to that of reed pens. Metallic nibs were made up through the 18th-century as one-off, craftsman-made luxury items.
Metal nibs are also easily manufactured to have different properties for different purposes. Also, they can now be attached to and removed from holders, allowing one to switch between nibs with relative ease.
Pointed nib, flexed and unflexed Pen nibs come in a variety of different shapes and sizes for different purposes but can be split into two main types: Broad nib[ edit ] The broad nib, also called broad-edge or chisel-edge, is the older of the two nib types.
It is rigid and has a flat edge. The pen is usually held at a constant angle to the horizontal; different scripts require different nib angles. Thick and thin strokes are created by varying the direction of the stroke.
Pointed nib[ edit ] The pointed nib is flexible and comes to a sharp point rather than a broad edge. Thick and thin strokes are achieved by varying the amount of pressure on the nib. Thick lines are created on downstrokes by pushing down on the nib, causing the nib tines to splay and allowing more ink to flow through the widened slit onto the writing surface.
Lighter pressure produces less flexing of the tines, creating thinner strokes. The finest hairline strokes are created on the upstrokes and sideways strokes.
Due to the shape of the pointed nib, thick lines can only be produced on downstrokes. If too much pressure is applied to the pen on an upstroke, the nib tines are likely to dig into the paper. Pointed nibs originated in the 17th century and were initially created by hand from quills in a similar fashion to broad-edge nibs.
Towards the end of the Industrial Revolution in the early 19th century, a high demand for nibs coupled with steel manufacturing processes eventually led to the mass production of the steel nib.
Pointed nibs also led to the development of newer styles of penmanship such as the English Round Hand and Copperplate scripts during the 17th and 18th centuries, as well as the Spencerian script in the 19th century.
Pointed pens are also used by artists and drafters for sketchingmapping and technical drawing. Although any pointed nib can be used for drawing, there are nibs available that resemble writing nibs but are specially designed for pen drawing. Stub nib[ edit ] A stub nib usually lies somewhere between a broad and a pointed nib.
The stub nib comes to a flat point, like a broad nib, and pulling the pen down will create a wider line than a line drawn across, again, like a broad nib. The main differences are in matters of degree. In a stub nib, the nib is generally smaller than in a broad nib, though there are some very broad nibs that would be considered a stub nib.
In a stub nib, the corners are more rounded than in a sharp broad nib used for decorative writing. This is because stub nibs on steel pens were invented as a reaction to the sharp and scratchy nature of the early pointed steel pens, and are intended to be for rapid and easy writing.
You also had other professions like Chancellors  or Congressional  which imply people who needed to write a lot, and to write it quickly and easily. You find stub nibs most often today on fountain pens.
These are usually measured in millimeters. A stub nib can be a good choice if you like the modulation in line thick and thin you can get with a flexible nib, but you also want the smoother and easier action of a monoline non-flexible nib.
To write with a stub nib, just as you do with a broad nib, you try and hold it at a consistent angle to the line of writing. The best advice is to experiment and see which angle seems more pleasing with your style of writing. One modern example of someone using a stub nib for rapid, and most certainly, extensive writing was the author Shelby Footethe historian of the American Civil War.
These metals share qualities of extreme hardness and corrosion resistance. The tipping material is often called "iridium", but there are few, if any, nib or pen manufacturers that used tipping alloys containing iridium metal since the mid s.
The breather hole also acts as a stress relieving point, preventing the nib from cracking longitudinally from the end of the slit as a result of repeated flexing during use. The whole nib narrows to a point where the ink is transferred to the paper.
Broad calligraphy pens may have several slits in the nib to increase ink flow and help distribute it evenly across the broad point. This is because their line, which can be varied from broad to fine, is suited for writing musical scores.Islamic calligraphy is applied on a wide range of decorative mediums other than paper, such as tiles, vessels, carpets, and inscriptions.
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The Greek word agape (love) seems to have been virtually a Christian invention -- a new word for a new thing (apart from about twenty occurrences in the Greek version of the Old Testament, it is almost non-existent before the New Testament). Perfume Calligraphy by Aramis is a Oriental Floral fragrance for women and pfmlures.come Calligraphy was launched in Top notes are cardamom, lemon and cinnamon; middle notes are myrrh, saffron and rose; base notes are patchouli, amber, musk and agarwood (oud).
From Alpha to Omega, and A to Z and then a 30 foot roll of humanist minuscules with an x height of 12 inches spread before them the participants were invited to join in with their double pencils.
Then, when I thought I had them on the ropes, I allowed a weary but cheery group to take a seat and with their 1 inch guidelines, begin the first lesson in . Alternative ways of writing English. This is a collection of constructed scripts and alternative spelling systems for English..
These scripts are all invented by visitors to Omniglot. If you have invented a new alphabet and would like me to add it to this site, please read the How to submit a con-script page. New scripts appear at the bottom of .