Spectrophotometry Video transcript - To think about collision theory, let's consider the following reaction.
How a reaction rate is measured depends on the nature of the reactants and products. Some measurable quanitities are: But after that, measurable amounts of product are produced, and we record the amount of product produced every minute for example.
When we plot the points of amount of product produced vs time, for the same reaction at two different temperatures, we get a graph like the one shown below: A fast reaction will have a steeper slope than a slower reaction. On the graph above, the red line represents a faster initial reaction rate than the blue line because the slope of the red line is greater than the slope of the blue line in the early initial stages of the reaction.
Reaction rates slow down as the reaction approaches equilibrium. As products are formed, there are fewer reactant particles to react which means there will be fewer successful collisions, so, the reaction rate decreases. At equilibrium, the concentration of a reactant, or the concentration of a product, does not change with time.
At equilibrium each line in the graph above will be straight horizontal line. Do you understand this?
Take the test now! Zinc and Hydrochloric Acid Reaction Rate Consider an experiment in which we add hydrochloric acid, HCl aqto a clean piece of metallic zinc, Zn sin an open beaker. The products of this reaction will be water soluble zinc chloride, ZnCl2 aqand hydrogen gasH2 g.
Measure the rate at which a reactant disappears: For example, we could remove the piece of zinc from the beaker every minute and weigh it separately, recording its mass before placing it back into the beaker and starting the timer again.
Over time, the mass of zinc would decrease. Measure the rate at which a product appears: For example, we could use the "water displacement" method to collect the hydrogen gas and measure its volume every minute. Over time, the volume of gas would increase. We could then investigate the factors that influence the rate of reaction by changing one variable at a time and repeating the experiment.
For example, we could study the effect of changing the concentration of the acid on the reaction by rate by repeating the experiment several times using the same volume of acid BUT each time using a different concentration of acid, while keeping all other variables constant, that is, same volume of hydrochloric acid in all experiments same temperature for all experiments same atmospheric pressure for all experiments same clean, dry beaker for all experiments same mass of zinc for all experiments same dimensions width, height and breadth for the piece of zinc see Experimental Design Tutorial for more details of how to design your own experiments.
If we were to perform a set of experiments to test each of the variables that we think would effect the rate at which zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid, we would find results such as those given in the table below:Collision theory is a quantitative theoretical construct for modeling the dynamics of a chemical reaction, based on principles of statistical mechanics and chemical energetics.
The theory predicts the rate at which a chemical reaction may occur. Rate & Collision Theory. Background.
The reaction you will be investigating is the reaction that occurs when an Alka-Seltzer tablet is placed into a given amount of water. Alka-Seltzer is an over-the-counter antacid and pain relief medication that is dissolved in water before it is ingested.
To gain an understanding of collision theory. To gain an understanding of the four main factors that affect reaction rate. Reaction kinetics is the study of the rate of chemical reactions, and reaction rates can vary greatly over a large range of time scales.
Feb 28, · Film Theory: Willy Wonka and the Golden Ticket SCAM! (Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory) - Duration: The Film Theorists 7,, views. Collision theory. Different reactions can happen at different rates.
Reactions that occur slowly have a low rate of reaction. Reactions that happen quickly have a high rate of reaction. Reaction Rates (Chemical Kinetics) and Collision Theory Tutorial Key Concepts.
The rate of a chemical reaction is the speed with which reactants are converted to products. Collision Theory is used to explain why chemical reactions occur at different rates.