This has also led to a sharp increase in new HIV and Hepatitis C infections among these intravenous drug users, leading more government officials to ponder how to address this growing crisis. Users who visit these centers can exchange used needles for sterile ones, but may not use drugs on site. The North American Syringe Network reports that there are of these programs across 33 states and the District of Columbia offering support.
Cause[ edit ] Needlestick injuries are a common event in the healthcare environment. When drawing blood, administering an intramuscular or intravenous drug, or performing any procedure involving sharps, accidents can occur and facilitate the transmission of blood-borne diseases.
Injuries also commonly occur during needle recapping or via improper disposal of devices into an overfilled or poorly located sharps container. Lack of access to appropriate personal protective equipmentor alternatively, employee failure to use provided equipment, increases the risk of occupational needlestick injuries.
Needlestick injuries are more common during night Needle exchange programs  and for less experienced people; fatigue, high workload, shift work, high pressure, or high perception of risk can all increase the chances of a needlestick injury.
During surgery, a surgical needle or other sharp instrument may inadvertently penetrate the glove and skin of operating room personnel;  scalpel injuries tend to be larger than a needlestick.
Generally, needlestick injuries cause only minor visible trauma or bleeding; however, even in the absence of bleeding the risk of viral infection remains.
First of all it is difficult to observe a needlestick injury, either in oneself or in other persons. Glove perforations in surgeons are considered a reasonable proxy that can be measured objectively.
Even though glove perforations can be objectively measured, it is still unclear what the relation is between glove perforations and needlestick injuries.
It is estimated that half of all occupational needlestick injuries are not reported. Most studies use databases of reported needlestick injuries to determine preventable causes. Among healthcare workers, nurses and physicians appear especially at risk; those who work in an operating room environment are at the highest risk.
The availability of hotlines, witnesses, and response teams can increase the percentage of reports. Low risk perception can be caused by poor knowledge about risk, or an incorrect estimate of a particular patient's risk.
Injuries with a hollow-bore needle, deep penetration, visible blood on the needle, a needle located in a deep artery or vein, or a biomedical device contaminated with blood from a terminally ill patient increase the risk for contracting a blood-borne infection.
These effects can cause self-destructive behavior or functional impairment in relationships and daily life. This is not mitigated by knowledge about disease transmission or PEP. Though some affected people have worsened anxiety during repeated testing, anxiety and other psychological effects typically abate after testing is complete.
A minority of people affected by needlestick injuries may have lasting psychological effects, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Nonetheless, workers are often obligated to report the incident as per the facility's protocol regarding occupational safety.
Post Exposure Prophylaxis[ edit ] After a needlestick injury, certain procedures can minimize the risk of infection. Unless already known, the infectious status of the source needs to be determined.
The mainstay of PEP is the hepatitis B vaccine ; in certain circumstances, hepatitis B immunoglobulin is recommended for added protection.
The injured person can start antiretroviral drugs for PEP as soon as possible, preferably within three days of exposure. All of these drugs can have severe side effects.RepathaReady ® offers resources and support services to help patients stay on track with their high LDL treatment.
Sign up today to see if you are eligible for the Repatha ® Copay Card, and to receive nurse support, needle disposal containers, medication reminders and informational emails, and insurance assistance..
Do you have a Repatha ® prescription? The following is a guest post by one of our Contributing Authors, and an accomplished weaver and fiber artist, Aneesha pfmlures.com is the first installment about Aneesha’s work using needle felting with residents of an assisted living facility.
Registered Nurses provide counselling on how to reduce the risk of harm for anyone involved in the sex trade, street involved or drug use. A large component of the Harm Reduction model is a Needle Exchange program for injection drug users. CLARK COUNTY, INDIANA Syringe Exchange Program. Kentucky Harm Reduction and Syringe Exchange Program Guidelines for Local Health Departments Implementing Needle Exchange Programs.
KRS A Centers for Disease Control.
The Foundation for AIDS Research Fact Sheet. Drug Policy Alliance. The Body. Needle-exchange programs, or NEPs, are community-based initiatives that allow intravenous (IV) drug users to exchange used syringes for clean, sterile ones in an effort to stem the spread of HIV.
Dear Friends and Neighbors: The Needham Exchange Club is excited to kick off its 32nd annual Fruit and Chocolate Sale! This popular holiday campaign provides an opportunity to support the many good works of the Needham Exchange Club in the community, including the Sunshine Special for senior citizens, scholarships for high school seniors, and other youth programs and awards.