Division of Korea Kim Il-sung, amongst other Korean communists and Soviet representatives, at a conference in Pyongyang inseated under large portraits of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and himself. The Korean peninsula had been occupied by Japan from Though the Soviet declaration of war had been agreed by the Allies at the Yalta Conferencethe US government became concerned at the prospect of all of Korea falling under Soviet control.
Read a Country or a Territory Report In the history of the United States, the American commitment to civil liberties has frequently been put to the test.
The darker chapters of American history, especially those involving crackdowns against immigrants and political dissent, have almost always occurred during times of war or the threat of war. It is within the context of a history in which the rights of the individual have been placed in jeopardy mainly during wartime that we must assess American counterterrorism policies in the wake of the September 11,attacks on the United States.
This chapter deals with those aspects of President George W. The report details the arguments advanced against these policies as well as those articulated by the Bush administration and its supporters.
But this is not a simple "on the one hand, on the other hand" assessment. The chapter shows that a number of the actions taken by the administration in its war on terrorism present genuine threats to the individual rights of American citizens and of foreign citizens caught up in the counterterrorism net.
At the same time, it is important to point out that the setbacks to individual rights during the war on terrorism pose less severe threats to American liberty than those that arose during the major conflicts of the past.
The United States has not declared a wholesale suspension of habeas corpus rights, outlawed political dissent, placed tens of thousands of nonwhite residents in domestic detention centers, ordered security services to conduct campaigns of surveillance against war critics, or blacklisted entertainers and academics who differed with the policies of the federal government.
Nor has the government taken sweeping action against the press, despite article after article that revealed sensitive information about counterterrorism initiatives.
Civil libertarians and others have argued strongly that the laws and policies devised to deal with traditional warfare are sufficient to cope with the threat of terrorism. They may be right. But at this point the United States and other democratic societies are still grappling with this extremely important issue.
Although the law enjoyed widespread approval in Congress when it was passed, and despite its renewal in March by a vote of to in the House, many of its provisions are still highly controversial and have been challenged in court. This controversy is particularly important because the use of the PATRIOT Act both leads and perpetuates a long-term broadening of governmental powers.
Many of the most hotly disputed provisions are modeled on preexisting antiracketeering statutes. In a similar way, many of the antiterrorism tools provided in the PATRIOT Act are now being used to pursue those suspected of other crimes, particularly drug crimes.
Title I establishes a federal fund for counterterrorism efforts and authorizes the president to seize funds belonging to any "foreign person, foreign organization, or foreign country" which he finds has participated in a terrorist attack against the United States.
This provision is modeled on criminal asset forfeiture laws, which allow the government to seize the assets of accused criminals without due process. The provisions of Title II are among the most contentious parts of the act.
Detractors argue that the increased surveillance they permit impinges on individual rights without meaningfully increasing protection from terrorism.
FISA allows the government to conduct warrantless searches if a federal judge finds probable cause that the target is conducting espionage for a foreign power. In Julythe Justice Department said of this provision, "Such an order could conceivably be served on a public library, bookstore, or newspaper.
Because the recipients are gagged under the law, such requests may be significantly underreported.
Title II also authorizes "roving surveillance," permitting the government to intercept communications without specifying the facility or location. Instead, the government may avail itself of all the information, facilities, or technical assistance necessary to monitor a given target while protecting the secrecy of its investigation.
The authorization of roving surveillance was designed in part as a response to new technologies such as cellular telephones, e-mail, and other means of rapid communication. Although Title II requires warrants for searches and record seizures in terrorism investigations, it does not require the government to notify those being searched and indeed requires officials to keep their searches secret.
Because these searches are performed without the knowledge of property owners, the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI calls them "sneak and peek" searches. These sneak and peek warrants have since been used in drug cases and other ordinary criminal matters.
It also expands U. Title IV enhances the power of the attorney general and federal immigration authorities to prohibit people affiliated with terrorist organizations from entering the country. Critics note that the law does not provide for any judicial oversight of the "terrorist" designation of people or groups.
Title IV also requires the attorney general to detain aliens engaged in activities that endanger national security. After these aliens have been held for six months, the attorney general must determine whether they still represent a threat. However, so long as the attorney general reviews and recertifies the threat every six months, aliens may be held indefinitely.
FISA authorized the federal government to use NSLs to request that an electronic communication service, such as a phone company, provide information about its subscribers and their activities. NSLs were to be used only against persons directly suspected of terrorist activity, and companies were not permitted to tell these persons that the government had accessed their records.
NSLs have always been controversial because unlike other warrants, they do not require judicial oversight and do not allow subjects to know that they are being monitored.
It also permits the use of NSLs against a far broader category of targets: Eight states and cities and counties have passed resolutions condemning the law as a violation of civil liberties. At least one city has passed a law barring city employees from complying with federal investigations that would violate civil liberties, although some experts question the legality of such an ordinance.Oct 31, · The evidence that the Medieval Warm Period was global, & that it, the Roman & Minoan WPs & the Holocene Climatic Optimum, or whatever the latest fashion in its nomenclature might be, plus the deglaciation phase prior to it, were also warmer than now has been abundant & growing since Lamb, at least, ie 50 years.
United States, officially United States of America, abbreviated U.S. or U.S.A., byname America, country in North America, a federal republic of 50 states. Besides the 48 conterminous states that occupy the middle latitudes of the continent, the United States includes the state of Alaska, at the northwestern extreme of North America, and the island state of Hawaii, in the mid-Pacific Ocean.
The United States and its partners continue to face a growing number of global threats and challenges. The Great Clock with its two faces was considered to be sophisticated technology for its time. site of the Japanese air raid which drew America into World War II. The harbor still serves as a US Navy base.
Photo courtesy of NASA. Interesting observations about Religion > Religions 1 Of the countries in the world, 65 are predominantly Roman Catholic, 50 are predominantly Muslim (11 of which are Sunni Muslim), 10 are mostly Buddhist and four are mainly Hindu.
Asia-Pacific; Eurasia; Europe; Middle East and North Africa; Americas; the persecution of war critics during World War I and the Red Scare that followed it, the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, the McCarthyite phenomenon during the early cold war, and the government's campaign of surveillance targeting opponents of the.
On August 9, , in the closing days of World War Two, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan and advanced into Korea. Though the Soviet declaration of war had been agreed by the Allies at the Yalta Conference, the US government became concerned at the .