Klingenstein Library are especially strong for the Colonial and Revolutionary War periods. This guide covers the years towith the inevitable steps forward and backward. The geographic scope reflects the library collections for this time period: The points of view of all participants, including foreign governments and other allies, are represented.
Egyptian The earliest surviving detailed garden plan, dating from about bce, is of a garden belonging to an Egyptian high court official at Thebes. The main entrance is aligned on a pergola trellis-bordered walk of vines leading directly to the dwelling.
The rest of the garden is laid out with tree-lined avenues, four rectangular ponds containing waterfowl, and two garden pavilions. Although rigidly Chambers dissertation oriental gardening, the garden is divided into self-contained walled enclosures, so that the symmetry of the whole could not have been apparent to the viewer.
Such a highly developed pattern argues a considerable incubation period, and it is likely that similar enclosed pleasure gardens had been designed as early as bce. Artist's re-creation of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, constructed c.
Brown Brothers Greek and Hellenistic The urban life of ancient Greece led to houses built around central private courtyards. Lined with colonnades that gave access to the rooms of the house, the courtyard, or peristyle, was open to the sky and insulated from the street.
In the peristyle was a garden consisting of a water supply and potted plants.
Much of life, however, was lived in public. The sports grounds, where exercise was taken, became popular gathering places and developed into the original academy and lyceum, which included the exercise ground, seats for spectators, porticoes for bad weather, statues of honored athletes, and groves of shade trees.
These public recreation grounds set the type for the later Classical Roman villa garden and the 19th-century European public park. A third type of Greek garden was the sacred landscape, such as the Vale of Tempe or the mountain sanctuary of Delphi.
Vale of TempeVale of Tempe, Greece. Luxurious pleasure grounds were made, especially at colonies such as Alexandria and Syracuse. These gardens were conspicuously luxurious in their display of precious materials and artificial in their use of hydraulic automata.
Roman Roman gardens derived from the Greek, those in the seaside resorts of Pompeii and Herculaneum 1st century bce following the Hellenistic pattern. These small, enclosed town gardens were visually extended by landscapes painted on the walls.
Throughout the imperial period, the more ambitious villa gardens flourished in many forms on sites carefully chosen for climate and aspect.
Frescoed wall of fruit trees, palms, and oleanders from the garden room of the Villa of Livia, Rome, c. The Eastern Empire, centred on Constantinople, retained its hold on Greece and much of Asia Minor for another millennium, and Byzantine gardens persisted in the Hellenistic tradition, laying more emphasis on wonder-provoking apparatus than on aesthetic values.
A recurrent feature of these gardens was a tree of gold or silver equipped with birds that flapped their wings and sang and branches that sprayed wine or perfume. Islamic Beginning in the 7th century, the Arabs progressively captured much of western Asia, Egypt, the whole of the North African coast, and Spain.
In the process, they spread features of Persian and Byzantine gardens across the Mediterranean as far as the Iberian Peninsula. Most characteristic of these gardens was the use of water—the ultimate luxury to desert dwellers, who appreciated it not only because it allowed plants to grow but also because it cooled the air and gratified the ear with the sound of its movement.
It was commonly used in regularly shaped, often rectangular, pools. The water was kept moving by simply designed fountains and was fed by narrow canals resembling agricultural irrigation channels.
Because water was rarely abundant, the pools were shallow but increased in apparent depth by a blue tile lining. These pools of water graced Islamic gardens—such as those of the Alhambra in Granada—that resembled the Hellenistic colonnaded courtyard.
The gardens provided shade, excluded hot winds, and created the sense of being in a jewelled private world. Water mirroring the sky gave an impression of spaciousness and introduced lightness, brightness, and an air of unreality. Whereas gardens of the Alhambra type were architecturally conceived within the total plan of a building, some of the more extensive Timurid gardens and their derivatives, the Mughal gardens of India, were pleasances of water, meadow, trees, and flowers, in which buildings took a subordinate place.
Although these garden buildings were permanent, their subordinate role and the lightness and luxuriating frivolity of their design mark them as heirs of the casually positioned tents seasonally erected in hunting parks.Leyla Acaroglu is a leading sustainability strategist and an expert on lifecycle and systems thinking in design, production and consumption.
She is a designer, social scientist, educator, TED speaker and passionate proponent of sustainability in and through design. The Chinese garden is a landscape garden style which has evolved over three thousand years.
It includes both the vast gardens of the Chinese emperors and members of the imperial family, built for pleasure and to impress, and the more intimate gardens created by scholars, poets, former government officials, soldiers and merchants, made for .
Leyla Acaroglu is a leading sustainability strategist and an expert on lifecycle and systems thinking in design, production and consumption. She is a designer, social scientist, educator, TED speaker and passionate proponent of sustainability in and through design.
The Chinese garden is a landscape garden style which has evolved over three thousand years. It includes both the vast gardens of the Chinese emperors and members of the imperial family, built for pleasure and to impress, and the more intimate gardens created by scholars, poets, former government officials, soldiers and merchants, made for reflection and escape from the outside world.
Technology In Action, Introductory - United States Edition, Alan Evans, Mary Anne Poatsy, Kendall Martin A Survey of Worcestershire by Thomas Habington V2 (), Thomas Habington, John Amphlett Four Freedoms Trimmers, School Specialty Publishing, Carson Dellosa Publishing.
In addition to our online resources, there are many research tools available in the library's reading room. On-site users can access digitized primary source documents from the New-York Historical Society in Gateway to North America: The People Places, & Organizations of 19th Century New York and digitized Revolutionary War Orderly Books.