An analysis of the cognitive artifacts by david a norman

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An analysis of the cognitive artifacts by david a norman

However, going into greater detail concerning these issues would be beyond the scope of this paper. However, depending on the depth and range of the extant literature, the initial focus of the case study may be quite focused or broad and open-ended.

Therefore and because the case study strategy is ideally suited to exploration of issues in depth and following leads into new areas of new constructions of theory, the theoretical framework at the beginning may not be the same one that survives to the end HARTLEY,p.

Besides, theory development does not only facilitate the data collection phase of the ensuing case study, the appropriately developed theory also is the level at which the generalization of the case study results will occur.

This role of theory has been characterized by YIN a as "analytic generalization" and has been contrasted with a different way of generalizing results, known as "statistical generalization" pp. The four conditions or tests are cf.

Construct validity; external validity; reliability. However, these issues will be addressed again in Section 4.

Indeed, the case study's unique strength is "its ability to deal with a full variety of evidence—documents, artifacts, interviews, and observations" YIN, a, p. Use of multiple sources of evidence; creation of a case study database; maintaining a chain of evidence.

This will help to refine the data collection plans with respect to both the content of the data and the procedures to be followed. As another fundamental characteristics he puts forth that "you do not start out with a priori theoretical notions" ibid.

Besides, a careful description of the data and the development of categories in which to place behaviors or process have proven to be important steps in the process of analyzing the data.

The data may then be organized around certain topics, key themes or central questions, and finally the data need to be examined to see how far they fit or fail to fit the expected categories ibid.

According to YIN a, pp. Relying on theoretical propositions; thinking about rival explanations; developing a case description. Besides, the analyzing of data is enhanced by reference to the existing literature and using this to raise questions about whether the researcher's findings are consistent with or different from extant research ibid.

This step is called reporting, with numerous forms of reports being available, and the typical case study report being a lengthy narrative YIN,p. Content Analysis This section provides a brief introduction to qualitative content analysis as a text analysis method for qualitative social research.

At the end of this section, quality criteria and validation issues relevant for qualitative content analysis will be highlighted see Section 4. However, there does not seem to exist a homogenous understanding of this method at present, but originally the term "referred only to those methods that concentrate on directly and clearly quantifiable aspects of text content, and as a rule on absolute and relative frequencies of words per text or surface unit" TITSCHER et al.

Later, the concept was extended to include all those procedures which operate with categories, but which seek at least to quantify these categories by means of a frequency survey of classifications ibid. It is "essentially a coding operation," with coding being "the process of transforming raw data into a standardized form" BABBIE,p.

They contend that "coding forces the researcher to make judgments about the meanings of contiguous blocks" and that coding is "the heart and soul" of whole text analysis ibid.

According to them, classical content analysis "comprises techniques for reducing texts to a unit-by-variable matrix and analyzing that matrix quantitatively to test hypotheses" and the researcher can produce a matrix by applying a set of codes to a set of qualitative data e.

More will be said on the topic of coding in Sections 4. In fact, the theoretical basis of the first moves towards analyses of contents was Harold D. But even before that, different approaches to analysis and comparison of texts in hermeneutic contexts e. Bible interpretationsearly newspaper analysis, graphological procedures and even Freudian dream analysis can be seen as early precursors of content analysis MAYRING, a, [6].

According to GILLHAMthe "essence of content analysis is identifying substantive statements—statements that really say something" p. The simplest type of evaluation consequently consists of counting the numbers of occurrences per category assuming there is a relationship between frequency of content and meaning.

Besides, different indices which correlate two separate measurements and contingencies, more complex procedures can also be used for analysis TITSCHER et al.

BERELSON's book "Content analysis in communication research" first published was the first compendium of the methods and goals of quantitative content analysis which had been developed up to that time, and which concentrated on assessment on the basis of frequency analyses BERELSON, He contended that the quantitative orientation neglected the particular quality of texts and that it was important to reconstruct contexts.

An analysis of the cognitive artifacts by david a norman

MAYRING a, [6] even speaks of "a superficial analysis without respecting latent contents and contexts, working with simplifying and distorting quantification. The context of text components; latent structures of sense; distinctive individual cases; things that do not appear in the text.

In fact, qualitative content analysis claims to synthesize two contradictory methodological principles: Being a little bit more specific he defines qualitative content analysis in the following way: There is an emphasis on allowing categories to emerge out of data and on recognizing the significance for understanding the meaning of the context in which an item being analyzed and the categories derived from it appeared" BRYMAN,p.

In contrast to this, MAYRING's qualitative content analysis is not only an approach to analyzing documents but also a sophisticated and concretely described method at the same time. Thus, a clear and concise definition of qualitative research can hardly be found.

Therefore, qualitative methods are often used when the field of research is yet not well understood or unknown and aim at generating new hypotheses and theories, while quantitative methods are frequently used for testing hypotheses and evaluating theories cf.

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Gregory Ward: Department of Linguistics, Northwestern University